updated: 23 August 2007


 

Delayering
This term, sometimes known as vertical disaggregation describes the process whereby organisations become 'flatter' as layers of management are removed in restructuring processes. This may have the effect of eliminating or reducing promotion paths that were traditionally available within the internal labour market.
 
Demand site
The 'demand side' of the labour market refers to employers as opposed to the 'supply side', which refers to the workers in employment or seeking work or those who will do so in the future.
 
Deskilling
Coined by Braverman (Harry Braverman, Labour and Monopoly Capital, Monthly Review Press, 1973) in the early 1970s, the term deskilling describes simplification of labour processes brought about as a result of the introduction of Taylorisation and or Fordist processes often combined with mechanisation or automation. By standardising tasks and reducing the number of actions required by each worker, this enables less skilled workers to be substituted for more skilled ones and reduces the value of labour. It is sometimes contrasted with 'upskilling' (whereby workers are required to acquire new skills).
(Source: Ursula Huws)
 
Detraditionalisation
Detraditionalisation refers to the disappearance of traditions, i.e. ingrained habits typical for a specific social group (clan, village, nation, etc.), in social life. As a consequence of the increasing reflexivity of late modern individuals, social and technological information and knowledge instead of traditions become the dominant directives for individual and collective social action.
 
Disability
Disability is defined by Haggard (Haggard 1985) as '...a reduced repertoire of generally valuable biological, physical and social skills'.
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Discrimination
Discrimination' is a term with a precise legal definition in most EU member states. It refers to the inferior treatment of members of one (defined) social group compared with other social groups.
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Disorganisation
This term is used to refer to the decline of corporatism caused by the process of post-industrialisation.
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Division of labour
The general term 'division of labour' describes the way in which work is organised in every society that is more complex than that of a hunter-gatherer tribe in which every individual is expected to carry out every type of task (although even here a 'gender division of labour' can always be observed).
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Dual labour markets
This is a term coined by economists (Doeringer and Piore) interested in processes of labour market segmentation to suggest that employment is becoming increasingly divided between workers in primary labour markets and those in secondary labour markets.
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Dual-career family
A dual-career family is 'one in which both heads of household pursue careers and at the same time maintain a family life together.' (Hester and Dickerson, 1984)
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