updated: 23 August 2007


Early retirement
Retirement refers to the age at which a job holder withdraws from the labour market and does not intent to re-enter it again. For most people retirement refers to the time when, having experienced a number of years of work, they withdraw form the labour market. Retirement is usually described as a 'roleless role' as oppose to the socially defined role one has while in a job.
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Earnings polarisation
This term is used to describe the degree of difference between high earners and low earners in a given labour market. A low degree of polarisation indicates a relatively egalitarian structure.
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Economically active
See Labour Market Participation
Educational and training systems
Institutional configurations, educational trajectories, links between education and the labour market, and training content are all part of educational and training systems.
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Educational attainment
Educational attainment is defined as the percentage of the adult population (25 years old and over) that has completed a certain level of education defined according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED 1976 or 1997).(www.unece.org/stats/gender/web/glossary/e.htm)
Educational expectations
The concept of 'educational expectations' was coined to describe the notion that institutional arrangements impact quite early the life course of students as well as their transition from school to work.
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Emotional work
A term first coined by Arly Hoschchild (Hoschchild, A.The Managed Heart) (in a classic study of airline stewards) to refer to work which has an emotional content and which draws on human qualities of caring, empathy, assertiveness etc. for its effectiveness.
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Broadly speaking, the term 'employability' refers to the potential of each person to find or change work.
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Employment protection legislation/ regulation (EPL/EPR)
Employment protection legislation/regulation (EPL/EPR) refers to the set of regulations (EPR) or laws (EPL) that inhibit an employer's prerogative to fire an employee.
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Employment relationship
This phrase denotes the contractual relationship between the employer and the individual employee, which is normally formed when the employer offers remuneration and other benefits in return for the performance of specified work by the employee.
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Employment structures
This phrase is sometimes used to refer to the composition of the workforce/employees according to different skills levels in the organisation.
(Monique Ramioul)
Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP)
Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP) is an integrated information system that serves all departments within an enterprise.
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Entgrenzung von Arbeit
See Boundaryless work
The term 'eWork' is used to describe work involving the processing of information which can be carried out at a distance from the employer or client and transmitted over a telecommunications network.
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Explicit knowledge
See Tacit knowledge
External labour market
See Dual labour market
External-internal flexibility
See Internal-external flexibility
Externalisation refers to a process of economic restructuring, in terms of which employment regulated by a contract of employment is being displaced by employment that is regulated by a commercial contract. This can occur in one of several ways.
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