updated: 23 August 2007


Qualifications refer to the experience and expertise acquired by people in work and education. Formal qualifications are usually those acquired through formal education or training/examinations, degrees and diplomas testifying to attainments. Formal accreditation of qualifications makes it possible for workers to transfer between employers and between countries in the knowledge that their qualifications are recognised and also makes it easier for employers to assess the suitability of candidates for vacancies. It thus plays a crucial role in promoting the mobility of labour and improving the efficiency of labour markets. Informal qualifications are those acquired through experience. Qualification requirements may form the basis of job recruitment and promotion.
See also on-the-job training.
Qualitative flexibility
See Functional flexibility
Quality circles
The term 'quality circles' refers to groups of workers in a large company responsible for improving productivity, product quality (and sometimes working conditions) on the shop floor.
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Quantitative flexibility
See numerical flexibility