updated: 23 August 2007


Racism is a term used, primarily in English-speaking countries, to refer to hostility to and/or discrimination against people on the grounds of their skin colour, national origin, language or religion. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with xenophobia which refers more generally to a hostility to and/or discrimination against non-nationals. The term 'xenophobia' is more widely used in European policy.
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Reflexivity refers to the ability of the modern individual to govern his or her own life. In the past centuries, the development of capitalism and the nation state facilitated the enormous spreading of social and technological knowledge via the educational system and the mass media.
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Regional cluster
See Industrial cluster
Relative subordination of women
This is a concept highlighting a generally accepted normative and structural difference between women and men in society, commonly illustrated by the example of giving an 'accepted smaller' but significantly lower salary to women doing the same work as men. The concept of relative subordination of women could serve as a reflexive reminder along the research process for making sometimes self-evident power relations between women and men more visible.
See also Gender roles.
Rental workers
Rental workers is the Greek term for temporary workers.
Repetitive work
This concept of repetitive work refers to work tasks that are repeated over and over again by a jobholder.
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Replacement in the labour market
The term 'replacement' is used in discussions of labour market restructuring to refer to the phenomenon whereby in times when jobs are scare, higher skilled workers have a tendency to displace lower skilled workers from their jobs. This phenomenon is also referred to as crowding out .
Responsible rationality
See Care Rationality
Economic or industrial restructuring is a concept that has grown from attempts to explain aspects of economic change which do not seem adequately covered in the literature of the business cycle. The concept has been developed to denote the re-creation of the conditions for extended accumulation following a crisis.
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Returns on education/skills
There are at least three distinct ways of defining the 'returns to education': (a) the private return, (b) the social return and (c) the labour productivity return.
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Routinisation of work
The phrase 'routinisation of work' refers to a development in which some types of work duties are becoming more routine because they are undertaken to standards set by the design of the technology that is used to carry them out.
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